• The determination of the abundance of heavy elements (e.g. O, N, S, Ar) in gaseous nebulae is fundamental to understand the formation and the chemical evolution of galaxies and the Universe.

    Despite recent surveys (e.g. Califa, Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have provided advances in the knowledge of gaseous nebulae and their host galaxies, important aspects in the study of these objects remain ill-defined.

    In particular, the abundance discrepancy problem in HII regions and planetary nebulae, generally interpreted as being caused by the presence of temperature fluctuation, put in checking the nebular abundance scale of the Milk Way and extragalactic objects.

    In order to address this problem among others, we propose to gather scientists and students and providing extensive discussion about crucial questions related to the study of the chemical abundances in gaseous nebulae.

    Main topics:

    - Abundance discrepancy in HII regions and Planetary Nebulae.

    - Methods to determine the chemical abundance in gaseous nebulae.

    - Ionization correction factors of HII regions and Planetary Nebulae

    - Abundance determinations in objects at high redshift

    - Implications of the chemical abundance in gaseous nebulae on the galaxy evolution

    - Circumnuclear star-formation regions 

    - Optical and infrared spectroscopy of gaseous nebulae

    Abundance determinations in AGNs